Integrated Pest Management is an approach to addressing concerns due to "plant pests" that prefers the least toxic and invasive approach and provides chemicals with the position of last resort in a chain of options. An issue of mounting global concern is the use of a relatively new type of insecticide, "neonicotonoids" which are systemic and persistent neurotoxins. The European Union has banned them, and a global integrated assessment has been completed that raises serious concerns about "neonics", which are available locally to consumers and also applied to crops. A specific concern to Carrboro as a participant in Bee City USA is the known impact of neonics on pollinator species. In the absence of current regulation, all local citizens, and especially landscapers and farmers responsible for larger areas of land, are encouraged to become informed about the risks and impacts of neonics and to avoid their use.